Women were not included because we had no data on their cigar use.
Men who reported they had never “smoked cigarettes, cigars, or pipes, at least one a day for 1 year's time” were considered to be “never smokers.”Analyses excluded men who reported a history of cancer other than nonmelanoma skin cancer (n = 6119), who reported that they had ever regularly smoked cigarettes or pipes (n= 364 561), or who had unclear or contradictory responses to smoking questions (n= 118). We used Cox proportional hazards modeling to examine the association of cigar smoking and cancer mortality while adjusting for other potential risk factors (9). Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health; 1966.
We adjusted all rate ratio (RR) estimates for age, alcohol use, and use of snuff or chewing tobacco. Smoking in relation to the death rates of one million men and women. Epidemiological approaches to the study of cancer and other chronic diseases.
Information on cigar smoking was based entirely on the smoking history reported in 1982.
Men who reported ever smoking “cigarettes, cigars, or pipes, at least one a day for 1 year's time” were instructed to complete more detailed questions about smoking status (current or former), duration (in years), amount (number smoked per day), and depth of inhalation (none, slight, moderate, or deep).
The underlying cause of death was coded from death certificates according to the International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision (ICD-9) (8).